fertilizer guide

                        

 

 

 

Pepper (Capsicum) belongs to the Solanaceae family and it is native to America. There are five domesticated species: C. annuum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. baccatum and C. pubescensPeppers can be classified as sweet or spicy. Sweet peppers vary in shape and size and also present different colour when reaching maturity. It is an herbaceous perennial plant with an annual cycle and its height can vary between 0.5 meter (in certain varieties of outdoor cultivation) and more than 2 meters (most of the hybrids grown in greenhouses). Growth stages of pepper plants consist of four periods: Young plant planting, Vegetative growth, from flowering to fruit set, fruit ripening to first harvest and from first to last harvest.

Pepper is used as a fresh vegetable, pickled vegetable, fresh chili spice and dried paprika powder.

Climate: Pepper is a demanding plant. Temperatures depend on the development crop stages.

  • Germination. Optimum temperature is 20-25 ºC. Min. 13ºC/ Max. 40ºC
  • Vegetative Growth. Optimum temperature is 20-25 ºC (day); 16-18 ºC (night). Min. 15 ºC/ Max. 32 ºC
  • Flowering and Fruit set. Optimum temperature is 26-28 ºC (day); 18-20 ºC (night). Min. 18 ºC/ Max. 35 ºC

The average monthly temperature in order to get good harvest has to be from 18º to 22º C, being the ideal temperature from 20 to 25ºC during the day and from 16 to 18ºC at night. With lower temperatures the vegetative growth stops.

Light: Very demanding, especially at early stages of development and during flowering.

Soilsandy-loam or loam soils, well drained and rich in organic matter (3-4%).

pH: Between 6.5 and 7. Good development at pH 8 in sandy soils.

 

Nutritional requirements

Pepper is a very demanding plant in nitrogen during the first stages of the crop, decreasing the demand of this element after the harvest of the first green fruits, having to control very well its dosage from this moment, since an excess would delay the maturation of the fruits. The maximum demand of phosphorus occurs with the appearance of the first flowers and with the maturation of seeds period. The absorption of potassium is a deciding factor for the precocity, colour and quality of fruits, increasing progressively until flowering. Pepper is also very demanding in terms of magnesium uptake, increasing its absorption during maturation.

Of the total quantities removed, fruits absorb most of nitrogen (64%) and phosphorus (77%), with the leaves accumulating the highest amount of calcium (79%) and magnesium (52%). Potassium is accumulated practically in equal parts by fruits and rest of vegetative organs.

Nutritional requirements. Source: Rincón et al., 1995
kg/ha kg/t production
Greenhouse
Expected yield (t) N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO
50-60 250-300 60-70 300-400 100-120 50-60
100 325 120 520 120 60 3.75 1.25 5.7 2.2 1.0
Open field
60 180-270 70-100 330-360 100-120 50-60 3-4.5 1.2-1.7 5.5-6 2.2 1.0
100 294 70-100 407 123 67

Fertigation recommendations

Fertigation recommendations. Greenhouse. Planting 1-15 December. Source: Rincón, 2003
Greenhouse (kg/ha)
Days after transplanting N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO
0-15 5 1 5 - -
15-30 10 2 10 - -
30-45 10 3 15 - -
45-60 15 4 20 - -
60-75 15 8 25 5 1
75-90 20 8 30 5 2
90-105 25 10 40 10 3
105-120 30 10 45 10 4
120-135 35 12 50 10 4
135-150 35 12 50 10 4
150-165 35 12 50 15 5
165-180 35 12 50 15 5
180-195 30 10 50 10 5
195-210 30 10 45 10 4
210-225 25 6 45 5 3
225-240 20 5 40 5 2
Total 375 125 570 110 42

 

 

Fertigation recommendations. Open Field. Spring Planting. Source: Rincón, 2003
Open field (kg/ha)
Days after transplanting N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO
0-15 10 2 5 - -
15-30 10 5 10 - -
30-45 15 10 15 - -
45-60 20 10 25 - -
60-75 25 10 30 5 3
75-90 25 10 40 6 4
90-105 25 8 40 8 5
105-120 20 8 40 8 6
120-135 15 6 35 8 6
135-150 10 6 30 5 3
Total 175 75 270 40 27

 

Foliar fertilizers

Foliar fertilization is the fastest and most effective method to supplement and enrich plant nutrition and to correct nutritional deficiencies when needed. This contributes significantly to higher and better quality productions.

Lima Europe has a wide range of foliar fertilizers and special products for foliar application.

To verify the safe rate under local conditions, it is advisable to spray recommended rate on a few plants. After 3-4 days check the tested plants for scorching symptoms.

Pepper fertilizer program

NPK  30-10-10 + TE

5 NPK Terra 12-44-12 + 6 CaO + 3 MgO + TE

5 NPK Multi 20-20-20 + 6 CaO + 3 MgO + TE

5 NPK Fructus 18-9-36 + 6 CaO + 3 MgO +TE

Starter 16-69-16 +TE: 2-5 kg/ha at plant establishment stage

Vegetative 27-27-27 + 3 MgO + TE: 2-5 kg/ha at vegetative growth stage

Fruit 18-11-59 + 2 MgO + TE: 2-5 kg/ha.

Grogreen Calciphos: 2-5 kg/ha not exceeding  a concentration of 2%. In order to correct Ca deficiency

Grogreen Ca/B: 4-5 kg/ha. In order to correct Ca deficiency and avoid Blossom-End-Rot. Ca/B increases flowering and fruit set

Pro-mino: 200-300 ml/hl from vegetative growth to maturity

Micro: 0.5-1.5 kg/ha. Possible deficiency at vegetative growth and flowering stages

proteKt-K50: 2 l/ha. Increased rates before and after flowering