Rice belongs to the Poaceae family. It is native to tropical and subtropical Asian areas. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production. Rice, a monocotyledon, is normally grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years.
Climate: It is a tropical and subtropical crop, although the largest production in the world is concentrated in tropical humid climates, but it can also be grown in humid subtropical and temperate climates. The crop extends from 49-50º north latitude to 35º south latitude. Rice needs to germinate a minimum of 10 to 13ºC, considering its optimum between 30 and 35ºC. Germination does not occur above 40ºC. The growth of the stem, leaves and roots has a minimum of 7 ° C, considering its optimum at 23 ° C. Minimum temperature to bloom is 15ºC and optimum is 30ºC.
Soil: It can be grown in a wide range of soils, varying from sandy to clay soils. It is usually cultivated in light and medium soils, typical of the sedimentation process in broad floodplains and river deltas.
pH: Most soils tend to change their pH towards neutrality a few weeks after the flood. The optimum pH for rice is 6.6.
Foliar fertilization is the fastest and most effective method to supplement and enrich plant nutrition and to correct nutritional deficiencies when needed. This contributes significantly to higher and better quality productions.
To verify the safe rate under local conditions, it is advisable to spray recommended rate on a few plants. After 3-4 days check the tested plants for scorching symptoms.
Rice fertilizer program
Nitrogen fertilization is very important in the production of rice. The plant needs Nitrogen to have a good development of green stem and leaves and tillering. Phosphorus and Zinc are elements with possible deficiency during this crop cycle. Possible options to use as foliar fertilizers:
Starter 16-69-16 + Micronutrients: Concentration of 2.5 solution. Spray at peak tillering, at heading and at milky stage.
Vegetative 27-27-27 + 3 MgO + TE: Concentration of 2.5 solution. Spray at peak tillering, at heading and at milky stage.
Fruit 18-11-59 + 2 MgO + Micronutrients: Concentration of 2.5 - 3% solution. Spray three times at 40, 60 and 75 days after sowing.
Zinc E-15: 1-2 kg/ha. Very important for enzyme functions related to growth and development and for efficient utilization of phosphorus at tillering stage. In order to correct possible deficiency.