Citrus trees are from moderate to large sized trees with evergreen leaves. In semi-tropical and Mediterranean climates, citrus fruits have a bright bark color and a soft texture, as well as an optimum blend of sugars and acid level perfect for the production of fresh fruitsThe development of the aerial part of citrus is produced in defined cycles called bud break or sprouting generally being threefold: Sprouting/Spring-flowering (March-April) and Summer vegetative bud break (June-July) and Autumn (September-October).

The fruit setting takes place from early May until the end of June and later fruit growth to maturity starts. This stage runs from July to March according varieties.

Climate is a critical factor. Temperatures below 0°C and above 35°C seriously affect the plant development. Temperatures from 25 to 30ºC are considered optimal for the photosynthetic activity.

Soil: They show optimal development in deep sandy soils and loam soils. Waterproof and heavy clay soils hamper their growth.



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Nutritional requirements

Citrus are very sensitive to nutrient imbalances and deficiencies in secondary and micronutrients are frequent. Nutrition affects fruit quality; therefore, the application and doses are essential. 

Nitrogen and Potassium are the main nutrients to increase

tree development and citrus yield as shown in the graph. 

Calcium is the third most used nutrient for fruit quality.


Citrus annual nutritional requirements (g/tree)
Age (years) N P K Ca Mg
Seedlings (2) 5.1 0.7 2.8 1 0.04
Development (6) 142 15 87 32 1.1
Adult (>12) 453 44 246 95 3.4


Fertigation recommendations

Maximum annual dose for maximum tree development. Typical 6x4 planting frame (416 trees/ha)

Maximum annual dose for maximum tree development. Typical 5.5x4 planting frame (454 trees/ha)

Maximum annual dose for maximum tree development. Typical 7x5 planting frame (285 trees/ha)


Foliar fertilizers

Foliar fertilization is the fastest and most effective method to supplement and enrich plant nutrition and to correct nutritional deficiencies when needed. This contributes significantly to higher and better quality productions.

Boron, Copper and Molybdenum are best applied to the leaf. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Manganese are also applied via foliar. Lima Europe has a wide range of foliar fertilizers and special products for foliar application.

To verify the safe rate under local conditions, it is advisable to spray recommended rate on a few plants. After 3-4 days check the tested plants for scorching symptoms.


Citrus fertilizer program



Grogreen Calciphos: 5-10 kg/ha at fruit set. Apply again in the same dose at intervals of 10-14 days. l/ha if it is needed. In addition, 2-3 applications of 5-10 Kg/ha at intervals of 7-10 days, applications begin 10-14 days before harvest. 

Zinc E-15: 1-2 kg/ha at Spring sprouting. Repeat application at Summer sprouting.

Manganese E-13: 1-2 kg/ha at Spring sprouting. Repeat application at Summer sprouting.

Grogreen Ca/B:  4-5 kg/ha applied before flowering and again immediately after flowering.